We will tell you interesting facts about Australia in this article.
- Capital: Canberra
- Population: 21 million persons.
- Language: English
- Religion: Christians, Jews, Buddhists, Muslims
- Currency: Australian dollar
So, Lets Go!
Australia the world’s sixth country by the territory size, and this only state occupying the whole continent. The Australian union includes the Australian continent and several islands, the largest of which is Tasmania. In the territory of the continent nature adjoins to modern densely populated megalopolises. Though the most part of the continent is occupied by semi-deserts and deserts, in Australia there are different landscapes from the Alpine meadows to the tropical jungle. Australia became the house for unique species of flora and fauna some of which don’t meet in other corners of the planet. A lot of plants and animals, including huge marsupials, have died with the advent of natives; others (for example, the Tasmanian tiger) – with the advent of Europeans.
Australia is a clear blue sky, a bright sun, kilometers beaches with snow-white sand and the ocean to the horizon. Along the northeast coast of Australia the Great Barrier Reef where the unique sea national park located. He is entered in the list of the World heritage. The Great Barrier Reef is a ridge of coral reeves and islands in the Coral Sea on some of which elite hotels are located.
The Australian continent – the ideal place for any water sports. Surfing, windsurfing, diving, water-skiing, rowing and yachting – all this services for vacationers on the coast. If it doesn’t seduce you, go to foot walk on one of numerous reserves, ride a bike or astride. Besides, it is possible to go to a safari or to go in for rock-climbing.
Appeal of Australia is concluded not only in the continent nature. Bring the contribution beautiful cities, the centers of cultural and business life of the state In all megalopolises – whether it be Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne or any other large city, – historical sights adjoin to skyscrapers, , the various museums and luxury shops.
When you leave Australia, of course, you will want to take away something for memory, something that will remind of a travel to this remarkable country. In gift shops you can buy various handiwork created by natives, clothes from the thinnest sheep wool, and in jewelry stores – from well-known Australian having weeded jewelry, graceful pearls or pink diamonds.
Climate of Australia
The Australian continent is located within three main warm climatic zones of the southern hemisphere: subequatorial (in the north), tropical (in the central part) and subtropical (in the south). Only the small part of the island of Tasmania is in limits of a moderate belt. In winter time which falls on June, July and August snow sometimes drops out, but he long doesn’t remain.
The subequatorial climate characteristic of a northern and northeast part of the continent differs in the equal course of temperatures (within a year the average air temperature of 23 – 24 degrees) and a large amount of rainfall (from 1000 to 1500 mm., and places more than 2000 mm.). The farther to the south, changing of seasons is noticeable stronger. In the central and western parts of the continent in the summer (December-February) average temperatures rise to 30 degrees, and sometimes above, and in the winter (June-August) decrease on average to 10-15 degrees. In the center of the continent temperature wakes up at summertime of year to 45 degrees in the afternoon, reduces to zero and below at night (-4-6 degrees).
Flora and fauna
About 85% of plants, 84% of mammals, 45% of birds, 89% of fresh-water fishes — endemics (meet only in Australia)
The Australian fauna includes single-pass — a duck-bill and an echidna, various marsupials, including koalas, a kangaroo, wombats, and birds, such as an emu, a cockatoo and a kookaburra.
Dingoes were delivered by Indonesians who traded with natives since 4000 B.C.
Melbourne was established in 1835 by the farmer John Betman who has bought at local natives literally for pennies the land (243000 acres) in the mouth of the river Jara. Melbourne became the first Australian settlement founded by free people. In 1837, the settlement totaled about 500 inhabitants. In 1847 Melbourne has received the status of the city. Gold and wealth promoted rapid development of Melbourne and its status of the main town of Australia. Among the highest buildings of Melbourne — 52-storey Nauru-house belonging to a tiny island.
The business center is on the right coast, and residential quarters and parks — on left.
Near the Royal botanical garden there is Turak — quarter in which the richest people of the state live. Exactly there is a headquarters of the largest corporation of Australia Broken Hill.
(4 million inhabitants) – the biggest city of Australia, shining and scintillating “gate” of the country. The huge number of sights (Opera House, Harbor Bridge, the Olympic stadium, Heymarket, etc.) is attracted not only persons interested to see all magnificence of the city, but also to get quality education in the educational institutions having international recognition. Sydney is not the capital of Australia as many think, but, nevertheless, it is the oldest and largest megalopolis which by right is considered as a continent pearl. It is the city of architectural contrasts where modern skyscrapers of business centers adjoin to ancient buildings in the Mediterranean style. It is the city of gardens and parks, brisk beaches and numerous sights. It is the city which is laying claim to “the capital of emigrants”, representatives practically of all nationalities of the world live in Sydney. The main sight, city symbol – Opera House, a unique architectural construction of opera theater. In Sydney there are highest buildings of Australia – the Sydney tower and the headquarters of the largest insurance company of the country, and also grandiose Harbor Bridge from where the tremendous view of the city opens.
The beautiful tropical city, but it is usually ignored. Here seldom who stops more, than for one or two nights as all aspire to the resort the Gold Coast located in 2 hours’ journey on the highway to the south at once. Usually in Brisbane stopped about two reasons – a business trip or transit. Brisbane is the capital of one of the most prospering states of Australia – Queensland – and also one of the most important cities of Australia. In combination with magnificent climate it does it by the important center of holding of conferences, seminars and exhibitions of the world value. The airport of Brisbane is one of the main international and local airports of Australia therefore very many, traveling from exotic corners of Australia or Oceania, stop here for one-two nights, waiting for the necessary flight or simply to add a variety to the long travel. The most beautiful views of Brisbane open from water during the cruise down the river Brisbane on the bank of which there is a city. Brisbane on the bank of which there is a city.
Population of Brisbane about 21 million people. Most of the population of Australia — descendants of immigrants of the 19th and 20th centuries, at the same time most of these immigrants have arrived from Great Britain and Ireland. Most of the population of Australia — descendants of immigrants of the 19th and 20th centuries, at the same time most of these immigrants have arrived from Great Britain and Ireland.
Meet the Australian girl in one of the city.
In Australia there is own dialect of English which is informally called ” strine “. He is brought much more closer to the British pronunciation and writing, than to American.
Catholics – 26%, Protestants – 20%, Anglicans of-26%, orthodox – 4%, Jews, Muslims and Buddhists.
The lieutenant James Cook explored the coast of Australia by the ship called «Endeavour». His copy has been constructed in 1988 to the two-hundredth anniversary of Australia. First people have appeared in Australia 42−48 thousand years ago. It were ancestors of modern Australian natives who have moved from modern Southeast Asia. According to the latest data, aren’t excluded as well the African sources of many local tribes. Most of natives were hunters with the oral culture and cultural wealth based on worship of the earth and belief in “an era of dreams”. Inhabitants of the islands of Torres Strait are ethnic Melanesians — were engaged in agriculture.
In the XVII century Dutch have plotted east and northern coasts of New Holland, but didn’t try to develop these lands. In 1770 James Cook has opened the western coast of Australia which called New South Wales and proclaimed the British possession. After loss of the American colonies Britain opens in Australia colonies for exiled. A number of the largest cities (Sydney, Port Philip, Brisbane) are founded as criminal colonies (English penal colony). According to a population census of 1828, a half of the population of the State of New South Wales were exiled, and the former exiled made about a half of the free population.
Exile to Australia punished usually small crimes; serious crimes, such as murders and rapes, were punished by death penalty.
Port Arthur (Tasmania) was the largest Australian Exile colony. The British colony New South Wales begins with the settlement, after called Sydney which was based on January 26, 1788 by the captain Arthur Phillip. 26 of January is a national holiday —“Day of Australia”. The earth Wang Dimenga (modern Tasmania) has been populated in 1803 and became separate colony in 1825. In 1829 Britain has attached the continent rest (modern Western Australia). In the former territory of New South Wales independent colonies have been created: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851 and Queensland in 1859. The northern territory has been founded in 1863. South Australia have been founded as “free colonies” therefore there were no exiled. Western Australia was “free” too, but later began to accept exiled in connection with an acute shortage of labor.
Exiles to Australia have been gradually stopped during the period from 1840 to 1868. From 1850th mass immigration of the free population in connection with the beginning of “Gold-rush”. In 1854 there are mass revolts of gold diggers which special discontent was caused by collecting a payment for license for the right of gold mining.
The number of natives estimated at 350 thousand by the beginning of colonization sharply decreased the next 150 years, generally because of infectious diseases and compulsory resettlement. The decision of the Supreme Court of Australia in the case of Mabo v Queensland has cancelled idea of Australia as “neutral territory” at the time of colonization and recognized the land rights of natives. In the second half of the 19th century in “resettlement” colonies of Britain requirements of autonomy amplify. During the period since 1855 on 1890 six British colonies have received self-government. On January 1, 1901, in particular, the Australian federation as the dominion has been formed.
In the second half of the 19th century in “resettlement” colonies of Britain requirements of autonomy amplify. During the period since 1855 on 1890 six British colonies have received self-government. On January 1, 1901, in particular, the Australian federation as the dominion has been formed.
The territory of the federal capital has been formed in 1911 as the place for the capital of Canberra (Melbourne was the capital from 1901 to 1927).
Australia was voluntarily involved in World War I; Australians consider defeat of the Australian-New Zealand army case (ANZACs) near Gallipoli as the nation birth moment. Losses of Australians in World War I concerning the population were the highest among allies, and this war has exerted considerable impact on national character.
According to the Westminster statute adopted in 1931 (and approved in 1942), the general head of state — the British monarch remained the only constitutional communication between Australia and Great Britain, Australia de facto becomes independent.
In 1933 Western Australia makes an unsuccessful attempt of secession.
Franklin Boggs — Kokod’s Track. From the beginning of World War II Australia sends troops to the aid of Great Britain. In 1940-41 the Australian forces are involved in war on the Mediterranean battlefield. War begins in Australia after the Australian cruiser “Sydney” and the German cruiser “Kormoran” have sunk each other at coast of Western Australia: all crew (645 people) of the cruiser “Sydney” has died, and the crew of «Kormoran» left the ship and has given up in captivity.
After attack on Pearl Harbor the Australian troops enter war with Japan. After fall of Singapore in February, 1942, 15 000 Australian soldiers get to the Japanese captivity. In several days Japanese bomb Darwin. For the next 19 months the North of Australia has sustained more than hundred air raids. In May, 1942 the Japanese submarines heat several landing ships in the port of Sydney. Japanese plan invasion and into Australia and her occupation.
For invasion into Australia Japanese needed to establish control over Papua New Guinea. Japanese try to occupy the capital of the island of Port Moresby, coming through mountain Kokoda Track Road. The battle known as en:Kokoda Track Campaign, or the Australian Thermopylae, continued from July, 1942 to January, 1943 and has come to the end with a victory of Australians. Fights in New Guinea continued till 1945.
In 1945 Australians land to Borneo (Kalimantan) and occupy this island.
The Australian troops also participated in disembarkation in Normandy and actions of “the second front” against Germany. The Australian group on the Western front in Europe was the third on number after American and British. In total during World War II more than one million Australians from eight million population did military service. one million Australians from eight million population did military service.
World War II has led to rapprochement between Australia and the USA which have been formalized by the conclusion of the contract ANZYuS in 1951. After the war in Australia wins against idea of insufficient density of population of the continent, and the country begins to encourage actively immigration, giving preference to immigrants from Europe, first of all – from Great Britain.
Since 1970th years, Australia departs from policy of white immigration that leads to mass entrance of immigrants from Asia, first of all — the People’s Republic of China, Singapore, Hong Kong, Vietnam, South Korea. In 2005 on Kronull’s beach in the city of Sydney there are mass collisions between the white population and the Lebanese immigrants. In 1986 supremacy of the British parliament over parliaments of separate Australian states is cancelled, supremacy of the British court is also cancelled.
In 1999 the Australian voters have rejected the project of transformation of the country to the republic on a referendum.
Besides Christmas (on December 25) and Easter in Australia celebrate: Birthday of the queen — the second Monday of June, Day of Australia — on January 26, the Labor Day — the first Monday of October, Day of ANZAC — on April 25 when esteem veterans of all wars, and also widely celebrate the Mother’s Day — the second Sunday of May, and Day of the father — the first Sunday of September. In the territory of Australia no wars existed therefore the country attaches special significance to events of the Dardanelles operation during World War I (1915) during which the Australian and New Zealand soldiers have especially caused a stir.
On the continent there is left-hand traffic on the British sample, and electro sockets according to the British standard. Tension in network 240B.
High popularity of such sport as cricket remains.
In the period of 1960 — 1971 Australia passes from the British system of measures and scales to metric.
In 1966 there is a replacement of the Australian pound (divided on the British sample, for 20 shillings consisting of 12 pence everyone) for the Australian dollar based on decimal system.
The status of Birthday of the queen as public holiday remains. Formally the queen of Great Britain is considered in Australia head of state.
In 1984 the anthem “My God, Store the Queen” is replaced with the anthem “Develop, Beautiful Australia”.
Owing to what two largest cities of the country — Sydney and Melbourne couldn’t solve which of them has to be the capital, her became the city of Canberra built especially for this purpose located approximately in the middle between these two cities. The local political system is characterized by considerable decentralization. Instead of the Australian driving license there are rights of separate states; in various states the procedure of obtaining the rights and the traffic regulation slightly differ. A number of states have the public holidays, the procedure of transition to summer/winter time differs.
On a set of goods the signature of “proudly Australian” / “proudly made in Australia” (with pride it is made in Australia) contains.
Meat of a kangaroo is eaten.
One of national symbols of Australia is vegemite— the eaten synthetic mix on the basis of yeast.
The Australian currency (Australian dollar, AUD) is the first-ever plastic (not paper) money. The size of coins at increase in face value doesn’t increase, and decreases.
Traditional immigration from Great Britain remains and until now, and immigrants from this country win first place on number among immigrants. The British immigrants in Australia are informally called by “pomam”
— the first European settlers in Australia were exiled the English convicts who had to wear a uniform with a pom stripe — “the prisoner of his Majesty”
On the territory of Australia for reasons of ecological safety it is forbidden to import any products, products from a tree, the soil on footwear soles.
Besides a flag with the image of the Southern Cross Australia has two more official flags — a flag of continental natives, and a flag of islanders of Torresov of the passage.
Absence of citizens of Australia at elections for the disrespectful reason is punished by a penalty.
The first European settlers in Australia were the British exiled . For 2007 to 22% of the population of Australia occur from exiled. The first police on the continent represented group from 12 exiled with good characteristics.
During the European colonization natives of the island of Tasmania have been completely exterminated.
In 1967 the Australian prime minister Harold Holt has completely disappeared after bathing in the gulf at Melbourne. According to different versions he has been eaten by a shark, carried away by an ocean current to the high sea, or is even kidnapped Soviet (option: Chinese) submarine. In the Australian English expression “has appeared to make Harold Holt” that means completely to disappear.
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