We will tell you interesting facts about Austria in this article.
- Capital: Vienna
- Population: 8 million persons
- Language: German
- Religion: Christianity
- Currency: euro
In this small country located in the center of Europe you will be able to walk on cozy small streets of Salzburg and Innsbruck, to drink the well-known fragrant Vienna coffee, to visit the Vienna Opera, to enjoy Mozart’s creativity, to bathe in thermal pools and to restore health in medical radonic adits of Gashtayn, to have a rest on the lakes of Carinthia, to be alloyed on the mountain river, and, of course, to drive on mountain skiing in the Alps!
If you never been in Austria, begin with Vienna. Magnificent monuments of architecture, museums and galleries with unique treasures of art of Western Europe. Vienna was of particular importance as the city of music. Music and poetry create a unique charm of this country. Here lived and such composers as Johann Strauss, Ludwig Van Beethoven, Wolfgang-Amadeus Mozart, Franz Schubert and many. You will be able to listen to their music in one of numerous Vienna concert halls and in the summer even in city parks. The well-known Vienna candy stores, always hospitably open for.
Austria – one of the most alpine skiing countries of Europe. In any other country the alpine skiing industry, tourism and sport aren’t connected so closely with each other. Today’s Austria has numerous ski resorts, various on the architecture, an arrangement and infrastructure. The most interesting region – Tyrol – the empire of mountains and the sun with the capital in the city of Innsbruck. The area Arlberg uniting several world famous resorts, such as “star” Lech on which crowned persons and where fine driving is guaranteed throughout all season, legendary Sant’-Anton, in comparison with Lech more democratic and several small resorts, such as Tsyurs, Christoph and etc. The valley Ottstal, the uniting Zelden, Hokhzelden, Gurgl, Vent and other resorts isn’t less interesting. Rather low prices and fine opportunities for driving are offered by the resorts which are in 60 km from Innsbruck in the valley Tsillertal.
In mountains severe winters and hot summer. East plain is in a zone of continental climate. On northern slopes of the Alps the winters typical for continental climate, and summer hot are observed. In the south of the country climate almost Mediterranean.
– January from-1 to -5 °C,
– in the summer of 15-18 °C, in the south to 25-27 °C. In highlands snow sticks to 7-8 months.
Area of Austria: 83850 sq.km. Borders on the Czech Republic, Hungary, Switzerland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Germany and Luxembourg. East Alps occupy 62% of the territory, the foothills of the Alps and the Carpathians – 11% of the territory. The Vienna basin covers about 5%, and mountain plateaus about 10% of the territory of Austria. In Austria more than 900 tops which height exceeds 3000 m. The river Danube crosses Northern Austria from the West to the east.
Austria is one of the centers of tourism thanks to the well-known Alps, and also a large number of other sights: in the country several summer musical festivals, the most known of which is the Salzburg festival, are held; sanatoria on mineral sources, and also the numerous museums. In Vienna there is a world famous Museum of history of arts in which collection of a family picture Breygelya, the famous Italian, German and Dutch artists; collections of jewelry and objects of art of the Sacred Roman Empire; Austrian gallery; Museum of the equipment; Museum of folklore and ethnography; Museum XX of century; Museum of natural history.
Among monuments of Vienna architecture town hall (1872-1883); Burgteatr (1874-1888); building of parliament (1883); building of the Vienna Opera (1861-1869); imperial palace; Gothic cathedral of St. Stefan (XVIII-XIV century). Vienna and the parks is well-known: Shtadtpark; the Belvedere park in which there is a lock in Baroque style; the summer imperial palace Shenburn near whom there is a park XVIII of century and, oldest in the world zoo. (it is founded in 1752).
Monasteries and churches of Vienna: The Scottish monastery – Abbey of Benedictines, the most ancient Vienna monastery (about 1155 is based). Church of the 17th century, construction’ the Scottish yard’ (first half of the 19th century), collections: an altar (apprx. 1470). The capuchin monastery, is founded in 1618. Imperial family crypt: a family Gabsburg tomb , richly decorated sarcophagus
Palaces of Vienna: The palace Hofburg – the Treasury with imperial crowns, Imperial rooms and the Collection of silver and dining facilities. The imperial palace “Hofburg”- the former residence of Gabsburg, was reconstructed since the Middle Ages up to the 20th. century, a chapel, a treasury, apartments of an imperial family, a stable, the Spanish School of riding, National library with ceremonial halls Noyburg. Schönbrunn Palace: summer imperial residence, Fischer von Erlach’s construction (1695-1713), internal rooms, room, where the emperor Franz Joseph has died, the museum of carriages and crews of Vagenbug Palace Belveder:belveder Palace and garden of prince Evgeny Savoysky. It is constructed by the architect Hildebrandt. Lower Belvedere: Austrian museum of baroque (construction of 1714-1716); Top Belvedere: Austrian gallery (construction of 1721 – 23). Hermesvilla in the park Laynts. It is constructed in 1886 according to the plan of K. von Hasenauer as a gift of the emperor Franz Joseph to the wife Sisi. Having appeared in Austria, a sin not to visit Salzburg and its picturesque vicinities with world famous resorts. Salzburg is located in a northeast part of the province of the same name, on border with Germany which part he was throughout more millennium.
The city is obliged by the name to the fortress of Salzachburg which was on Nonnberg mountain. Saint Rupert at whom approximately in 696 construction of the monastery of Saint Peter has begun is considered the founder of Salzburg. Saint Rupert became the first archbishop of Salzburg, from him centuries-old dominion of church was established. Hieronomus Golloredo was the last Salzburg archbishop in 1800 he running from Napoleon and three years late put is title in Vienna. For some time the city has departed to Austria which was replaced by Bavaria, and only in 1816, but to the decision of the Vienna congress, he has finally received the Austrian accessory; but also in a bosom of the Austrian empire Salzburg remained the cosmopolitan capital, small and at the same time boundless.
The city is located at the height of 425 meters above sea level, his natural ornament – the river Zaltsakh on which both coast it was placed. One of symbols of Salzburg – Hohensalzburg fortress. Salzburg – the city of surprising churches. The Salzburg cathedral with the towers rising into the sky is especially well-known. 14 years the architect Santino Soljari worked on this monumental creation of church architecture, built on the base of a Romance cathedral from which he has taken only a font; in this bronze bowl Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was baptized. In the city several museums devoted to this composer. Reminds also Vienna garden pavilion belonging to the composer’s librettist Shikaneder of Mozart; in this pavilion Mozart worked on ‘A magic flute’. In 1873 the relic has been presented to Salzburg, and today you can see it behind a garden Mirabelle plums, on Schwarzstrasse. In general Austria bears the name “Country of Music” as, except Mozart, it is known for Anton Brückner, Josef Haydn, Franz Schubert, Jogan Strauss Sr. and Jogan Strauss Jr., Ludwig van Beethoven, Gustave Mahler, Richard Strauss, Alban Berg and many others.
Salzburg – the striking example of the baroque city where this style appears in all the gloss, confirmation to what is a garden Mirabelle plums with his terraces, marble sculptures and fountains.
The Hellbrunn palace built under the decree of the archbishop of Sittacus and which is approximately in eight kilometers from Salzburg is worthy visits. The Hellbrunn park is decorated with sculptures and fountains among which – the ‘crackers’ known to the Russian reader across Peterhof. Tell that the archbishop liking to have fun served to guests in the park and when they reached a certain degree of intoxication, the hidden mechanisms turned on, and on guests water flows were overthrown.
Graz – the capital of the State of Styria, the population – 242.000 people. Sights: City town hall, Franciscan church; Landkhaus (building of land parliament): curved arches of the courtyard, Armory; opera theater; «Leekhskirkhe’s» church; lock XI of century; cathedral; mausoleum; the funicular on the mountain Schlossberg: a belltower, defensive works, a tower with hours; cathedral of Teutonic knights of the XIII century; Gothic cathedral XV of century; church XVI of century which altar is painted by the Venetian master Tintoretto; Eggenberg Palace: survey of internal rooms, collections, park.
Sights in Linz – Column of the Trinity (1723); cathedral XVII of century “Alter Dom”; the castle XV of century in which there is a historical museum. The main sight of a city landscape – the mountain «Pyostlinberg» with the Church of Pilgrims located on her. The Church of Pilgrims constructed in the 18th century in Baroque style – the sacred place in Upper Austria. From a panoramic terrace under church the amazing view of Linz opens.
In Innsbruck (except the fine sports constructions giving the chance to do many winter sports): castle of Fyurstenburg of the XV century; Franciscan cathedral XVI of century; former imperial palace XVII of century. Near Innsbruck – the capitals of the State of Tyrol – in the town Vattens in cave blossom every day fairy tales of the Crystal planet of Svarovsky. Here it is possible to find the biggest and smallest crystals in the world, the wall made of 12 tons of the sparkling crystal gemstones. After survey, in shopping center it is possible to get refined gifts from Svarovsky crystal with silver and crystal souvenirs for memory. Outside there is a beautiful park for walks, games and opening created by hands of many famous artists.
The Austrian lands have been won by Romans from Celts in the 15th year BC. In 788 the territory has been included in Charles the Great’s empire. The Gabsburgov house with whose government blossoming of the Austrian state is connected has come to the power in the XIV century, and from 1438 to 1806 archdukes Austrian carried a title of the emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire. The republic Austria has been formed in 1919. Further there has come the period of a great depression. In 1938 there was an annexation (violent accession) of Austria by Nazis, and Austria has entered World War II. After World War II Austria has temporarily lost independence, being divided into four occupational zones between France, the USA, Great Britain and the USSR. Negotiations on restoration of independence have begun in 1947 and in May, 1955 Austria became completely independent state again the Country is a member of the UN and all specialized agencies of this organization, European Free Trade Association, OATS and the European Union. In 1995 Austria has entered the European Economic society, and in 1997 has joined the Commonwealth of the countries of the Schengen Agreement. Today’s Austria enjoys political stability in the heart of Europe.
Having gone to Austria, by all means it is worth trying:
- Meat on a stone – a dish No. 1 in Austria;
- Gluewein – the hot drink consisting of red wine and water (3:1), cinnamon, spices; essentially differs from the Bavarian mulled wine in lack of a dried peel;
- The most pleasant and correct souvenir from Austria – a small bottle of a fruit self-race – schnapps. Classical schnapps has to be 38% fortress (deviations influence taste). For sharpness of feelings put in a glass a piece of a tinned pear (if schnapps pear) or a peach (if schnapps peach); in plum schnapps plum isn’t put… Also you will meet more expensive grades of crimson schnapps, schnapps from a bouquet of blackberry and wild apples;
- Typically Austrian cocktail – Vodka Red Bull – the Austrians consider that the combination of “smirnovsky” table wine No. 21 with energy drink gives to a body feeling of zero gravity and flight. It is difficult to tell how there with flight, but doesn’t take down a mind – it is checked: it is possible to drink;
- Germknoedl – a magnificent sweet roll with poppy and sauce (vanilla or fruit);
- Wheat beer (Weizenbier ) – absolutely incomparable taste;
- Apple pie (Apfel Strudel) – In Salzburg and the Alpine small villages is served hot: be careful;
- Natural Mozartkugel candies – the enchanting invention of confectionery “Fuerst” – the only place where still sweets do by handmade (to tell the truth, treat “other sweets” first of all the best invention of Furst – I.-S. Bach candy); “original” Motsartkugel is on sale only in silver-blue packing and contains bigger amount of marzipan and cocoa, than golden-red American fakes.
- Fritters with cinnamon (Strauben) simply exclusive delicacy;
- Favourite beer of Mozart – (Shtigelbra); A magic souffle of Nokerln – sweet as love, gentle, as a kiss;
- Coffee, coffee and once again coffee: “Merchant” – strong double espresso, “ferlengerter” – is weaker, “melange” – coffee with milk and whipped cream, Aynshpenner – double Mocha in a high glass…
The population of Austria about 8 million people, from them about 20% live in Vienna. 98% of the population speak German. The majority working in the sphere of tourism is understood and spoken English.
Austria was elected the residence by some national minorities. in Carinthia live Slovenes, Croats and few Hungarians located In Burgenland. Czechs and Slovaks have located in Vienna for a long time.
The Austrians – the hospitable people, despite visible high-regularity. The explanation is in what the population of Austria, and in particular the large cities, is made by natives of bourgeois families. However the Austrians easily make contact and are always ready to help with difficulties. Distinctive features – politeness and punctuality.
Democratic republic. Administrative division: The presidential Republic Austria consists of 9 federal lands (das Bundesland): Vienna (Wien, the capital – Vienna), Upper Austria (Oberoesterreich, the capital – Linz), the Lower Austria (Niederosterreich, the capital – Sankt Pölten), Burgenland (Burgenland, the capital – Ayzenshtadt), Styria (Steiermark, the capital – Graz), Salzburg (Salzburgerland, the capital – Salzburg), Tyrol (Tirol, the capital – Innsbruck), Forarlberg (Vorarlberg, the capital – Bregenz), Carinthia (Kaernten, the capital – Klagenfurt).
Unlike the closest neighbors of Bavarians, it is more pressing beer, distinguished wreaths, and together with them and all Austrians prefer to malt drink good young wine – Heurige. Vienna and wine in general are inseparable from each other. They are also in German written probably so not especially strong in languages can mix inadvertently – Wien with Wein. Drink Heurige in the taverns called by Heuriger (not to confuse to usual wine taverns of Weinschenken) and located generally in suburbs of Vienna. And if cafe, similar to the well-known Vienna, it is possible to meet also in Paris, and Budapest, then Heuriger is only in Vienna and in the Lower Austria. How to distinguish Heuriger that inadvertently instead of a glass of kind wine not to receive a cup of usual coffee? Very simply: over an entrance to a tavern marrow the branch of a pine or even the whole pine wreath is surely set up.
In Vienna about 180 such cozy places – from small, of the size of the living room where frequenters come from the neighboring streets, to big, with chic of the arranged halls where it is possible to meet both a simple wreath, and the aristocrat from the high Austrian society. The area of Grinzing enjoys special popularity. Here it is possible to drink wines from the best-known grapes areas. However, the Austrians drink young wine not in a human way, diluting it with soda or simple mineral water, and call this sparkling GXspritzer drink. By the way, the special ‘Vienna card’ grants the right for a discount in all institutions of Heuriger network. Besides the discount owners of a card receive from owners a free glass of wine one for the road.
78% of the Austrians are Catholics, 5% consider themselves Protestants. 17% practise other religions or are non-believers.
Movement by trains
Austria, undoubtedly, is one of the most ‘railway’ states of Europe (5 800 km of an iron cloth): movement by comfortable trains and quickly (any to you problems with traffic jams!), and it is cheap. The Austrian federal railroad by right is proud of the faultless clearness and accuracy of train service. You can reserve and pay tickets through the agent (booking and delivery (within Vienna) railway tickets – $15 from the order) or independently in cash desk of the station. Configuration of insides of cars of trains can be the 1st and 2nd class. Structures of trains are in addition subdivided into a huge number of types on existence or absence: restaurant, the nursery, the special room for pets (from doggies to horses), the special car for transportation of bicycles or cars, etc. By the way, by train you can independently visit both Vienna, and Munich, and Venice!
- The cheapest option – the ticket in the car of the 2nd class without place (you sit down on free).
- Tickets in the car of the 1st class are reserved with places and are 40% more expensive.
- The reservation of places in the car of the 2nd class is made previously ($ =3))
- Sleepers usually join in structures of the trains marked as EN (Euro Night).
- Children up to 6 years usually travel free of charge, from 6 to 15 years – from 50% a discount.
- The discount to 50% can be provided to passengers with children upon purchase of the group ticket for distance more than 101 km (the size of a discount can vary depending on range of a trip). Be careful with docking trains when you have to do several changes, and count the time!
- In each structure usually there is a booklet with the schedule of the movement of this specific structure along a concrete route.
Movement on the car
- on the highway – 100 km/h
- on highways – 130 km/h
- in settlements – 50 km/h
Parking: of 30 min. to 3 h (it is allowed in strictly taken away ‘blue zones’) the Beginning of the parking is designated on special talonchik (‘timers’) which you have to get in a tobacco booth (Tabak-Trafik) and strengthen on glass. The carelessness and disorder can cost to you money in the amount of 20 euros): we recommend to pay a penalty for the receipt immediately in any bank.
Drunk driving (blood alcohol content exceeds 0,8 per milles (on an exhalation of 0,4 mg)) involves a penalty from 570 eu to 3570 eu and deprivation of the driving license.
Thanks for attention. We hope article it was useful to you!