We will tell you interesting facts about Bulgaria in this article.
- Capital: Sofia
- Population: 8,5 million people
- Language: Bulgarian
- Religion: Christianity, Islam
- Currency: Bulgarian lev
The Black Sea resorts of Bulgaria suffer a new wave of the Russian tourists. Attract here first of all low prices and lack of a language barrier. Bulgarian is quite clear to the Russian person, besides unlike many former socialist countries Russian in Bulgaria is still learned at schools.
The most popular resort of the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, as we know, Sunny beach. He was extended along the sea on seven kilometers – 130 hotels (from one to three stars). All pleasure institutions concentrate in the center. Reach there usually by a taxi.
There is also other transport: buses, mini-road trains and trishaws. It is possible to hire the car. Ho entrance of cars to all resorts of Bulgaria is limited in the summer therefore the taxi after all is better. Besides it isn’t always safe to walk at night on the Sunny beach.
Most Solnechnoberezhny hotels haven’t lost design of the middle of the 70th more yet remind the Crimean boarding houses, than the Antalya or kosto-bravsky hotels. The best and really answering to the European level the Polyus hotel is considered.
In half an hour of driving on the car from the Sunny beach the city museum of Nessebar – the usual place of a pilgrimage of tourists is located. In Nessebar about 40 small churchlets, a set of cheap fish small restaurants and the tiny market full of souvenirs: toy little men in national suits, pottery, women’s jewelry of silver and skin. Other sight of vicinities of the Sunny beach – Hansky Tent restaurant. He is famous for the (the only thing in the city) a variety show and excellent Bulgarian cuisine. House specialties – on-shopski salad (cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, sheep cheese, vinegar, oil) and peperka (the pepper filled with sheep cheese). Solar I protect the sea pure and quiet, but for fans of scuba diving here too small. With an aqualung it is better to have a rest on Gold dust.
Gold dust – the resort of Bulgaria, the second for popularity. He is located on the mountain routes which are going down to the sea. The most brisk life, of course, on the first – the next to the beach. Here both an opening day, and bars, and horses for walks. Having a little risen up, it is possible to retire to one of numerous small restaurants.
One more popular resort of Bulgaria – Albena. He is in the territory of the national reserve. Albena especially for the German tourists was under construction. It is the small, cozy resort. Here everything is close, all near at hand. Bars, where give the most known Bulgarian beer ‘Astika’ and ‘Zagorka’, (the mug costs from €0,8 to €1,5), discos (an entrance from €0,50 to €1,5), casino where the suit and an evening dress aren’t obligatory at all, attractions and waterslides for children (€ $0,6), any adult entertainments: driving on a paraplane (€20 in 10 minutes), the water bicycle, the motorcycle and skis (€15 in 10 minutes), surfing (€15 for an hour).
In Albena there is the small nudist beach. Ho ‘to force’, go isn’t obligatory there at all: here it is quite accepted to sunbathe stark naked and on usual beaches. Visit solar beaches with nice girl
On the most part of Bulgaria the climate continental, with cold winter and in the hot summer, to the South – passes to Mediterranean. Warm soft weather with a long swimming season from May to October is characteristic of the resorts of Bulgaria in spring and summer and autumn months. Average air temperature in May – +20 °C, in June and September – +25 °C, in July and August – +26-28 °C. Average annual temperature makes about 13 °C.
Bulgarian lev (A course for August 06, 2001: 2.2119 BGL = 1 USD), 1 lion =100 stotinok. In use of the note of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 lev, a coin – 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 stotinok. Approximate course: 1,22 Leva = 1 USD; 1,92leva = 1 euros. Import and export of lev is forbidden. The single European currency – euro is entered in the territory of Bulgaria with 1/1/2009. Import and export of foreign currency isn’t limited (the declaration is obligatory).
The country in the southeast of Europe on the Balkan Peninsula (from 1946 to 1990 the People’s Republic Bulgaria was called). Bulgaria has the general border with five countries. In the north, across Danube, there passes the border with Romania, in the south – with Turkey and Greece, in the West – with Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In the east it is washed by waters of the Black Sea.
The area of Bulgaria is 110912 sq.km. More than a half of the territory of the country is covered with mountains: Balkan Mountains cross the country from the northwest to the Black Sea and form a watershed between the Danube River and the Aegean Sea. In the south the Rhodope mountains across which there passes the border with Greece lie. In the southwest of Bulgaria lie Mount Rila where the highest point of the country – Mount Musala (2925 m) is located.
Closer to the East there are several valleys, including Trakiyskaya. The main river of Bulgaria – Danube which inflows are Is-kyr and Yantra. Other important rivers – Maritsa, Struma, Kamchiya.
The botanical museum in the National botanical garden, the Zoological museum in a zoo, the National archaeological museum, the National ethnographic museum, the National museum of natural history, the Museum of history of Sofia, National art gallery, buildings of the Sofia university of Clement of Ohrid and Folk theater of Ivan Vazov. Among monuments there are architecture of the capital: St. Georgy’s cathedral (the 4th century), the remains of St. Sophia Cathedral (the 6th century), the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (the XIX century) put in honor of 200,000 Russian soldiers who have fallen in fight for liberation of Bulgaria from the Turkish dominion, the mosque Buyul Dzhamiya XV of century. Near Sofia there is a church Bojana with unique frescos of the XIII century. In the city of Pernik, also near Sofia, there are ruins of the Byzantine fortress. In Plovdiv: the monastery XI of century of Bachkovo, a Catholic cathedral, Philip II Macedon’s amphitheater, churches – St. Weeks, St. Dimitr and St. Marines. Cities museums of world value: Arbanas, Bozhentsi, Great Tyrnov, Etyra, Zheravna, Koprivshtitsa, Copper, Melnik, Nessebar, Sozopol, Tryavna and Shiroko-Lyka. The imperial palace, patriarchal church, fortifications on the hill Tsarevets in Veliko Tarnovo, and also St. Dimitr Solunsky, Saint Peter and Pavel and Sv’s churches. Forty martyrs. Gabrovo – world <the capital=”” of=”” laughter=””>. In a southwest part of Pirinsky mountains there are Melniksky pyramids and Saint Nicholas’s church of the Wonder-worker. The city of Nessebar – is included into the List of world cultural heritage. The international resorts – Gold Dust, Albena, the Sunny Beach, Balchik, Nessebar. The wine-making enterprises and regular exhibitions of wines have made Bulgaria one of the centers of ‘wine’ tourism. Ski resorts: Borovets, Pamporovo and Bansko.
Bulgaria is a bridge between Europe and Asia. Tourists are served by the younger generation of Bulgarians. It badly knows Russian. Before a trip to the country it is useful to master bases of Bulgarian and to use it. In Bulgaria the prices for foreigners above, than for locals. If not to show documents and to speak on Bulgarian, it is possible to avoid discrimination.
Expression of a consent disagreement in Bulgaria opposite accepted in Russia, i.e. in agreement Bulgarians swing the head, and at denial nod.
The archeological excavations made on the Bulgarian earth have found traces of the Middle Paleolithic (100 O0O – 40 000 years B.C.). The most interesting data have been taken from a cave Devetak, near the city of Lovech and from Bacho Kiro’s cave, near the Dryanovsky monastery.
Thracians the first inhabited the earth of today’s Bulgaria what historians mention. This numerous population consisted of certain tribes, sometimes hostile to each other. From these tribes Serbians occupied southwest regions, odrisa (odryses), астис (astis) and demons (bosses) – the southern areas, miziyets, geta and tribala – northwest and northeast areas. In spite of the fact that Thracians had no writing, they could be carried to Indo-Europeans. The brightest traces of their civilization can be found in gravestone graves (tumulus). Thracians were farmers and shepherds, but also went in for crafts. Treasures from Vylchi Trjn and Panagyurishche testify to high degree of the perfection reached by their jewelers. In the fourth century B.C. Philip II Macedon and his son Alexander (336 – 323) have established domination over mostly Thracian tribes. But their fierce resistances have allowed them to return the freedom soon. In the same time in the 3rd century BC Celts seize the North of the Balkan Peninsula. We know that Kavar, their last possessor, minted coins from bronze and silver. Celts have held on more than half a century in the territory of today’s Bulgaria.
In the same time Romans have for the first time appeared on the Balkans. But they have finished the aggressive campaigns only in the 1st century of our era.
Two Roman provinces have been created: Miziya (to 15 g AD), between a mountain chain of the mountain Stara Planina and the Danube River, and Thrace (to 46 g AD) to the South from the mountain Stara Planina. The largest Roman cities were Serdika (now Sofia), Nikopolis hell Istrum (ruins at Nikup to the North from the city It is big Tyrnovo), филипополис (nowadays Plovdiv). After Moesia and Thrace were included into the economic and cultural area of influence of the Latin world, they enter the period of intensive development to which numerous monuments and archaeological values testify.
Invasions of barbarians development of the Roman civilization, and later, since the beginning 4 centuries has prevented, have begun to threaten domination of the Byzantine empire which has arisen after disintegration of the Roman Empire on two parts – Western and East.
Gotha and Huns, alternating, were transported through Danube, destroyed the cities and exterminated a part of the population. In the 6th century the emperor Yustiniyan managed to restore the most part of destructions and has returned to these regions of the empire their former gloss. But soon invasions, this time Avars, were resumed.
As for Slavs, they have begun to get to the Balkans at the end of the 5th century. In the second half of the 6th century of their invasion have become frequent and they have begun to settle on the right coast of Danube. Soon after that numerous Slavic tribes have occupied territories of Thracians and have begun to assimilate them. At Thracians has gone out of use their native language, as well as Latin which they long time used.
At last to the Balkan Peninsula Bulgarians have finally lodged. They were the same fearless wars as Avars, the same тюрско – the Tatar origin. They have also come from Central Asia. Bulgarians have helped Slavs to improve the organization, the political and social formation. That is why the state created in 681 thanks to the union of Slavs and Bulgarians began to be called Bulgaria in spite of the fact that the Slavic element in him prevailed. In 681 the Byzantine emperor Constantine IV Pogonat beaten by troops of the khan Asparukh near the mouth of Danube has signed the contract under which he has been forced to pay an annual tax to the Bulgarian khan. This fact is official recognition of existence of the new Bulgarian state.
The first capital of this state became Plisk. The territory of Bulgaria covered today’s northeast part of the country. To the East she left to the Black Sea, to the South – to a mountain chain Stara Planina, to the West – to the river Iskyr, and is later to the river Timok, to the North as her border served Danube. During the management the khan Krum (803 – 814) after has beaten Avars in the West and Byzantines in the south, has expanded borders of the state. In 809 he has captured Serdika (Sofia today). The victory over the emperor of Byzantium Nikifor the First who at first had overweight is especially significant, and also has robbed and has set fire to the capital of Pliska. But right after it Krum brilliant counterattack in one of Old Planina’s gorges has managed to destroy Nikifir’s army. The emperor was killed in battle in 811. Owing to these victorious wars, the Bulgarian state has expanded the borders up to the river of the Yew behind which there were Magyars, and to the Dniester River which served as natural border in the east and separated Bulgaria from Pechenegs. To the South Bulgarians have reached Mountains Rila and Rhodope.
During government of the khan Omurtaga (816 – 831) has been signed 30 – the summer peace treaty with Vizaniya. This era (8-9 centuries) left remarkable architectural and sculptural monuments – Plisk, Madar. The tsar Boris the First (852 – 889) ruled Bulgaria during the major events. One of them – creation of the Slavic alphabet in 863 solunsky priests, brothers Kirill and Mefodiy. In 865 the Christianity has been announced by the state religion. Since then Bulgaria became a cradle of Slavic culture and writing. Boris’s reign has prepared brilliantly the so-called ‘Golden Age of the Bulgarian literature’ which has followed right after it. There was it when to a throne there has ascended the tsar Simeon Veliky (893 – 927). During his board the First Bulgarian kingdom has reached apogee of the political and territorial power. After the brilliant victory over Byzantines at the river Akheloy (917 g). Simeon has expanded the influence to the peninsula Galipoli in Greece, has taken Macedonia and, using Serbia as the ally, has taken her under the protection and charge.
After that, during Peter I decline of the state has begun (927 – 969). Poverty which has come after wars, weight of taxes, a robbery from large feudal lords – all this has led to discontent and resistance from the people that has developed into the movement of Bogomils created and headed by the priest Bogomil. Rejecting all forms of the spiritual and civil power (comparing all mighty of this world to representatives of the Satan), Bogomils were threat for a ruling class. And they have been subjected to prosecutions and tortures. Their ideas extended appokrifny literature. These harbingers of the European reformatory movement have found many followers outside Bulgaria. Their preachers extended a heretical flame to many regions of the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. Patarintsa and a katara in Northern Italy, Cathars in Southern France and hillocks (bougre – bulgare) will create later (in 12-13 century) numerous sects of Bogomils of the various contents caused by local conditions. In 968 the Kiev prince Svyatoslav, the ally of the Byzantine emperor Nikifor II Foka, has occupied Northeast Bulgaria. But soon Svyatoslav has come over to the side of the Bulgarian tsar Boris the Second (969 – 971), the left marks Peter I’s throne. The Byzantine army has managed to force out Russians and has won a victory over Bulgarians. Having captured Boris who remained their hostage in Constantinople, the emperor of Byzantium has cut off many Bulgarian territories between Danube, the Black Sea and Stara Planina. In the West the Bulgarian kingdom (with the temporary capitals of Prespa and Ohrid) couldn’t hold on more than half a century (969 – 1018). In 1014 Vasily II’s army has taken unawares troops of the Bulgarian tsar Samuil and has hurt him. The emperor has ordered to blind all prisoners and to return them to the Bulgarian tsar. If to trust the Manasiyevy chronicle, at the sight of many blind men the Bulgarian possessor hasn’t sustained horror of this show and has died. The emperor Vasily has been nicknamed for it ‘bolgaroubiyets’. In 1018 the Byzantine troops have occupied Ohrid. Such is there was an end of the First Bulgarian kingdom. Enslavement (1018 – 1185) by Byzantium are the period of heartrending experiences for the Bulgarian people. Systematic plunders of the country by Pechenegs, as well as crusaders were added to oppression of Byzantines during their campaigns in 1096 and 1147. In the same time the movement of Bogomils began to expand. In Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium, Vasily, one of the most active distributors of the ideas of Bogomilism have been burned on a fire.
In the fall of 1185 the revolt prepared and driven by boyars from the city of Tyrnovo – brothers Assen and Pyotr has broken out. The revolt made success and in 1187. The emperor of Byzantium Isak II has signed the peace treaty owing to which all lands to the North from Stara Planina passed to the restored Bulgarian kingdom. In 1197 on a throne of the villages of Kaloyan, the younger brother of Assen and Petra. Kaloyan (1197 – 1207) has won the city of Varna and the big Areas of Thrace and Macedonia from Byzantines. During the next krestonosny campaign the capital of Byzantium Constantinople has been taken by the western knights and the new created East Latin empire began to apply for old possession of Byzantium. Thus the Latin emperor has counted Kaloyan as the vassal. The Bulgarian tsar has rejected claims of the emperor Balduin of flandresky. Military collision became inevitable. On April 14, 1205 at fortress walls Adrianople, contrary to all expectations, the Latin army which was considered as invincible has been crushed by Kaloyan. The emperor Balduin has been seized in captivity and flung in prison in the Bulgarian capital. Unfortunately, Kaloyan hasn’t managed to use completely this remarkable success. In 1207 he has been killed as a result of the plot organized by dissatisfied boyars.
During Ivan Asen’s reign by II (1218 – 1244) there has come the new period of rising of the Bulgarian state. Country borders since the time of Simeon have been restored, a strong push has gained development of arts and trade, stamping of own coins from gold, silver and copper has for the first time begun. The culture and economy have blossomed after fight at the village of Klokotnitsa (March, 1230) when the Bulgarian troops have won a brilliant victory over the Byzantines conducted by Feodor Komnin.
Decline of the Bulgarian state which is torn apart by the internal conflicts has begun with the second half of the 13th century. Krestyani, oppressed by an arbitrariness of boyars and a heavy burden of taxes, have risen by a revolt and after the victories over imperial troops and captures of the capital of Tyrnovo have proclaimed Ivaylo’s svinepas the tsar Ivaylo has managed to reject the next invasion of Tatars from the North. But in 1280 boyars have overthrown Ivaylo from a throne and its place was taken by Georgi Terter (1280 – 1292). Up to 1323 Bulgaria successors of a dynasty Terterov ruled. Among them only Todor is Svetoslav (1300 – 1321) has managed to overcome internal civil strifes and to adjust relationship with the next Tatar governors.
Mikhail Shishman (1323 – 1330) has given rise to a dynasty Shishmanov. At government of tsars of Ivan Alexander (1331 – 1371) and Ivan Shishman (1371 – 1396) have revived and the Bulgarian cultural traditions – first of all in the field of literature, the fine arts and architecture began to prosper.
But continuous wars with Byzantium and Serbia have weakened political and military power of the second Bulgarian kingdom which unification actually became fictitious. At the end of the existence independent possessors operated his certain areas: in Northeast Bulgaria, in Vidin, in Rhodope. This separation of the state has helped the Turks who have got to the Balkans at the beginning of the 14th century to seize all territories of the country. After a siege of the city of Tyrnovo Vidin – in 1396 has fallen in 1393, and. From this point within nearly five centuries Bulgaria has turned into the province of the Ottoman Empire.
The Turkish yoke (1396 – 1878) is the most gloomy period in the Bulgarian history. Political enslavement was combined with religious pressing the Bulgarian patriarchy has been destroyed, the remained churches have been compelled will obey to the Greek supremacy, monasteries and cultural monuments have been destroyed. Forced out from the strategic centers and fertile plains, Bulgarians have gone to mountains. A considerable part them has been forced to accept Islam. And those which defended the Christian religion have been subjected to cruel operation in the form of heavy taxes, different duties. ‘Paradise’ (Turks of enslaved Christians so called) have been forced to pay also a so-called ‘blood tax’, i.e. to send little boys for training to the Turkish barracks. After adoption of Islam, they turned in the Janissar which became a perfect part of the Turkish army.
The Bulgarian population repeatedly tried to be exempted from Ottoman oppression. Revolts broke out in 1402 – 1403, in 1598 and in 1686 in Tyrnovo, in 1688 in Chiprovtsakh, etc. Since the beginning of the 17th century there was popular a so-called haydushky movement (in the form of peculiar guerrilla groups).
In the 18th century the period of national revival has begun. Since 1735 have found distribution of school out of monasteries where training went in Bulgarian. Paisius Hilendarsky, the monk of the Atonsky monastery, wrote ‘Story slavyano-Bulgarian’ (1762). In many cities and large villages have appeared ‘chitalshcha’ – houses in which it was possible to read books, to spend evenings of national traditions, to put plays. The Chitalishcha have turned into the centers of development of national consciousness and distribution of again created cultural national values. At last and the Bulgarian church has achieved independence of the Greek patriarchy in Constantinople. Sultan ферман (decree) of 1870 has legally decided this independence and actually recognized identity of the Bulgarian nation.
Thanks to vigorous activity of revolutionaries Georgy Rakovsky, Vasily Levskogoyu, Lyuben Karavelov underground committees on all country for preparation of an armed revolt have been created. On April 20, 1876 in the city of Koprivshchitsa have burst the first shots. Many regions of the country have risen. But forces were unequal. The regular Turkish army accompanied with bashibuzuka (the mercenaries taken at the local Islamic population) has crushed badly armed and poorly trained insurgent groups. Dozens of the cities and villages have been burned and plundered. In the city of Batak insurgents and all inhabitants have been locked in church and subjected to bezmilostny slaughter. The poet and revolutionary Hristo Botev, at the head of the armed group, has passed Danube to help the general fight, but on May 20, 1876 in mountains near the city of Vraa his group has been broken, and he has died from an enemy bullet.
Cruelty with which the revolt has been suppressed has excited all Europe. Garibaldi, Dostoyevsky, Turgenev, Oscar Wilde, Gladston have called on sufferings of the Bulgarian people.
In August, 1876 in the French parliamentary newspaper Victor Hugo has written: ‘It is necessary to draw attention of the European governments to one fact, one absolutely small fact which the governments don’t even notice… The whole people are subjected to destruction. Where? in Europe… Whether an end will be put to torture of these little heroic people?’
Has shown defeat of the April revolt that Bulgaria won’t be able to be freed by own efforts. In the conditions of contradictions between great forces, seizing a propitious moment, the Russian emperor, whose prestige on the Balkans suffered recession, has taken the responsibility to act alone. Russia has declared war of Turkey in April, 1877. The Russian army has passed Danube and has begun military operations in the territory of Bulgaria. There was an osazhena important military fortress Pleven. At Shipk’s top together with the Bulgarian rebels the attacks of the army of Suleyman of the pasha hurrying to the aid of Pleven have been reflected. And winter of 1877 – 1878 the Russian troops have taken the offensive and have begun to force out the enemy up to Edirne and near Constantinople (Istanbul). On March 3, 1878 San Stefansky peace treaty has been signed. He has revived Bulgaria, having given today’s east and western Thrace in her possession.
San Stefansky peace treaty has been inspected by the Berlin congress (July, 1878). The western great forces, feeling the accruing influence of Russia on the Balkans after emergence of Great Bulgaria which relied completely on the Russian emperor, on the 4th congress have made the decision to cut down the new state. Macedonia, East Thrace and its exit to the Aegean Sea have been taken away from Bulgaria. Other territory of the country has been divided into two parts and remained subvassal Turkey. To the North from Balkan Mountains the principality Bulgaria, and to the South – Eastern Rumelia operated by the governor appointed the sultan has been formed.
Contrary to all this, Bulgaria has moved on the way of political and socially – economic revival. In 1879 the Great People’s assembly (parliament) has adopted the Tyrnovsky constitution sustained in the spirit of liberal traditions. This constitution, recognized and all main types of freedom: words, the press, parties, meetings has also protected a private property. The German prince Alexander Batenberg elected by Great people’s assembly has headed the state which has met great difficulties in the first months of the existence. Two parties – liberals and conservatives have at once faced, there were also diplomatic problems with neighboring countries and Russia. The population of Bulgaria couldn’t will reconcile to division of the country.
As a result of the national movement Connection of the principality Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia has been proclaimed on September 18, 1885. It has occurred against the will of great forces. Right after it the Serbian king Milan induced by Avstro – the Hungarian empire, claiming that balance on the Balkans is broken, has declared war of Bulgaria. But the active Serbian armed forces which have intruded in borders of the country were just created Bulgarian army and volunteers. The Bucharest contract of 1886 recognized the status of the united Bulgaria.
In the summer of the same year the prince Batenberg as a result of a plot of officers – supporters of Russia has been overthrown. But the chairman of People’s assembly Stefan Stambolov has organized a counter revolution and has urged Batenberg to return. Despite enthusiasm of the opponents of the Russian influence meeting it in the country, under threat to face the Russian emperor, the prince has been forced to abdikirovat.
The political crisis has found the permission in July, 1887 when the Great people’s assembly has chosen as Ferdinand Kogurgottsky’s prince, the candidate Avstro – the Hungarian empire. Up to 1894 Stambolov to whom the new prince has provided directed the country to make the government. This government pursued the anti-Russian policy, often resorting to rough police brutality. Authoritarian regime wasn’t to the taste also to Ferdinand who looked for ways of rapprochement with the new Russian tsar – Nikolay the Second. Using discontent of supporters of Russia, the Bulgarian prince has forced Stambolov to resign. Thus he has approved the authority and soon would proclaim himself the tsar of Bulgaria in Tyrnovo October, 1908. Along with it the dependence on Turkey imposed by the Berlin contract has also formally been rejected.
The new economic relations created by development of capitalism have given an impetus to organized labor movement. In 1891 the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party has been created. It has occurred at the constituent congress which has taken place at top of Buzludzha.
Opportunistic currents have been thrown out and in 1894 Dimitr Blagoyev has created the Bulgarian working Social Democratic Party.
Development of the industry in Bulgaria demanded an exit to the Aegean Sea. On the other hand – the population of Macedonia and the Southern and East Thrace was under the Turkish oppression. In 1912 the Balkan states of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and later and the Black mountain, have concluded the alliance directed against Turkey. On October 17 the same year allies have declared war of Turkey. After its victorious end Turkey has lost all the territories to the West from the line Midia – Enos (The London contract of 1913). Unfortunately, allies haven’t managed to reach the agreement on division of the won lands. To impose the requirements, on June 28, 1913 Bulgaria has attacked the Serbian and Greek troops which have occupied Macedonia. Ferdinand has underestimated forces of the resisting coalition which Romania and Turkey have immediately joined. This second Balkan war called ‘mezhdusoyuznichesky’ has ended with capitulation of Bulgaria. Owing to the Bukharetsky contract (August, 1913), Romania has annexed to itself the Southern Dobrudja, Turkey – East Thrace.
During World War I, after long fluctuation Bulgaria was included into the union with Germany to take a revenge for defeat in the second Balkan war. In October, 1915 the Bulgarian troops have attacked Serbia. At the end of war, having been won in the camp, Bulgaria has got into a difficult situation. In September, 1918 defense of the Bulgarian troops at the river Vardar has been broken and on September 28 the government has signed capitulation. A part come back from the front have risen and the tsar Ferdinand has been forced to abdikirovat, leaving a throne to the son Boris. The Neysky peace treaty (on November 27, 1919) has taken away the territories providing an exit to the Aegean Sea from Bulgaria.
The difficult situation of the people and indignation of two national accidents (1913 and 1918), as well as revolutionary wave in Europe, give an impetus to organized labor movement. On May 27, 1919 BKP which was included into the union with the Macedonian odrinskim the revolutionary movement supporting despite repressions from Boris III discontent of a people at large has been created.
On elections of 1920 the slashing victory was won by the Agricultural union. The new government led by Alexander Stamboliysky has been made. This management of rural party was considered more acceptable for the bourgeoisie than the accruing influence of communists. But soon, on June 9, 1923 Stamboliysky’s government has been overthrown by a military coup, and the rural leader has been killed. The new government gravitating to fascists under the leadership of professor Alexander Tsankov, aimed to destroy the communistic movement which approached more and more agricultural party therefore the United front has been formed. In September, 1923 the revolt of communists and farmers which has been cruelly suppressed has broken out. Repressions after the revolt have even more opposed ruling class on the one hand and workers and peasants, with another. BKP has been outlawed, fascist dictatorship has begun. After a large attentat for the purpose of elimination of the tsar made in Sveta Nedelya church on April 16, 1925 also white terror has begun.
In 1934 Boris III has taken radical measures. He has temporarily cancelled operation of the Tyrnovsky constitution, forbidding political parties. Military began to operate the country. On July 23, 1934 diplomatic relations with the USSR have been established. Rapprochement and with Yugoslavia has begun.
But nevertheless Bulgaria has been involved in an orbit of fascism and contrary to the protests expressed by national demonstrations in the first month of World War II, the government has rejected the Soviet offer on the conclusion of the pact of mutual aid and non-aggression between both countries. To the contrary, under Hitler’s pressing Bulgaria has signed on March 1, 1941 the Vienna contract and has provided the territory to the German troops. Contrary to the presented opportunity, it didn’t annex all Macedonia. On the other hand Bulgaria has returned itself the Southern Dobrudja (on September 7, 1940) after signing of the contract with Romania, thanks to support of the USSR.
After attack of Hitlerite Germany on the Soviet Union, in Bulgaria the organization of the soprotivitelny and guerrilla movement has begun. In 1942 the Domestic front which has united all anti-fascist forces has been created. Boris III never broke off the relations with the USSR and during the war in Sofia military attaches of the USSR and the Third Reich coexisted. Such situation irritated Hitler and he quite often expressed the discontent to the Bulgarian tsar. Boris has unexpectedly died next day after another conversation with the German Fuhrer.
On September 5, 1944, when the Soviet troops were on the Bulgarian-Romanian border, the USSR has declared war of Bulgaria. Coordinated actions with armed resistance and some parts of the Bulgarian army, the Red Army has entered the country. On the night of September 9 the monarchic power has been overthrown and it was replaced by the government of the Domestic front led by Kimon Georgiev, the leader of independent party ‘Zveno’.
Truce has happened to the USSR, the USA and England in Moscow on October 28, 1944. The Bulgarian army together with the Soviet troops has taken part in liberation of Yugoslavia, Hungary and Austria. Her active participation in fighting have helped the Bulgarian representatives at a peace conference with Paris to achieve inviolability of frontiers. This contract recognized the Southern Dobrudja as the Bulgarian territory.
The referendum announced on September 8, 1946 the country the republic. Georgy Dimitrom became her first head. On September 4, 1947 the new constitution has come into force. After Dimitrov’s death in 1949, the state was headed by Vasil Kolarov, and during the period from 1950 to 1956 – Vylko Chervenkov. During fight against Stalin’s cult some time Anton Yugov was the state head. Since 1962 Todor Zhivkov became the chairman of the board of ministers, and is later as the chairman of the State Council and the secretary general of the Central Committee of BKP operated the country up to November 10, 1989.
After this date in the country large changes in political and public life have begun. The country became on the democratic way and transition from planned to market economy.
You appreciate Bulgarian cuisine. Dishes really tasty – hot spices, abundance of vegetables, juicy taste. One of her main features – simultaneous thermal treatment of products on weak fire. It allows to keep nutritious properties, to achieve pleasant aroma of dishes, original flavoring combinations. It is promoted also by use of various products, seasonings, vegetable and animal fats. Seasonings are usually added in moderate quantities, their appointment – to shade the main tastes of a dish. By tradition Bulgarians make food on the open centers like a brazier (their general name in Bulgaria – a skara), and also on plates or in ovens (ovens). Products are put as pra-twisted, in pottery.
Winemaking one of the most ancient crafts of the Bulgarian people. The first wine-growers and wine makers have appeared on the Bulgarian lands a millennium ago, and since then civilizations have inherited this skill. Archeological excavations prove that the winemaking has arisen in Trakiya where the cult of god of a grapevine and fun – Dionysia has strongly been expressed about the time. Several millennia on this earth appear B.C. the first settlers – Thracians – ancient relatives of today’s Bulgarians. They were sung by Homer in – the Illiad as brave soldiers of the Thracian tsar Rezos, ally of Trojans. At this time legendary Orpheus has become famous; the sacred rituals and holidays accompanied with pouring out of plentiful amount of sparkling wine are known. Archeologists have found the relief image of the Thracian god of wine Sevatsios which unambiguously speak about traditions of our great-grandfathers in production of wine. During later period of history of the Bulgarian people, to the middle of the 9th century, the winemaking reaches such sizes and such variety that the Bulgarian possessor khan Krum of that time issues the law obliging the people to destroy vineyards. But the love of the people to cultivation and cultivation of grapes, and also to production of aromatic wine has got the best. The set of folklore songs and festive rituals which have remained up to now show that the winemaking always was and continues to be closely connected with a way of life and life of the Bulgarian people. The winemaking and wine growing in Bulgaria develop on previously planned way. From primitive house production before release from the Turkish yoke it passes to wine makers and dealers in wine. During this period the first wine cellars and cooperatives since the wine made earlier was made in not hygienic rooms by the primitive equipment are created. Today production of alcoholic drinks and wines is carried out by Vinprom – the commonwealth of forty large enterprises equipped with the most up-to-date equipment and having considerable skladovy base. The most known wine cellars in Evksinograda, Pavlikeni, Pleven, Ruse, Sukhindole, Khaskovo, Sofia, Variv, Pomorze and Lyaskovitsa. The oldest grade of grapes which has acclimatized in Bulgaria, it памид, to him about 5 – 6 millennia. Greeks and Phoenicians have transported many different grades. Today the following types of white wines are made: tamyanka, dimints, rakatsitell, riesling, Chardonnay. The red wines received from local grades of grapes: памид, gymza, мавруд, мелнишко Cabernet. Bulgaria exports wines and various grades of raki in more, than 70 countries of the world, the taken-out wines about one thousand quality grades and accompanied with the certificate of authenticity. It means that everyone can find wine and other drink to itself(himself) to taste. The best red wines: Mavrud, Melnik, Merlot, Stambolovo, Gymza, New Cabernet. Among white it is necessary to specify on Evksinograd, the Muscat from Karpovo, the Sungurlarsky muscat. Hang Krum, Dimyat, Tamyanka and others. It is impossible to neglect also moist sparkling Spark wines – white and red. As aperitif in Bulgaria drink mastic which, as well as Greek ouzo, prepares on the basis of an anise, and water is added to her to a wish. Traditions of the Bulgarian include the use as aperitif and raki: grape, plum, apricot, fruit. The most popular grades of raki are: Evksinogradsky grape, Burgaskayamuskatnaya. Trojan and others. Vermouths white and red, liqueurs – pink, crimson, peach have success. Bulgarian kittens are famous for the aromas and quality Evksinograd, Plisk, Coastal regions. And when you will sit down at a table with Bulgarians, on forget to tell: you’re welcome.
Lunch – the main time of meal at Bulgarians. Such dishes as ‘kebab’ are most popular (meat on a spit), to ‘kebabcha’ (fried meat sausages), ‘sarm’ (the stuffed grape leaves), ‘you trample down soup’ (quenelles cream soup), ‘plakiya’ (fish or meat stewed with vegetables), ‘sirens on shopsk’ (the eggs, cheese dish, tomato baked in a pot). The prices in Bulgaria for food and wine low (moist white or red wine – from 2 to 6lv, but it is possible to find more expensively). Especially taverns in national style in which national dishes move are famous, – they are called “mekhana”. They settle down usually in semibasement rooms, they are played by “live music”. Bulgarians have thought up also “raki” (plum brandy), the price – near 7lv. The Bulgarian fruit juice is in great demand. Coffee, both Turkish, and “espresso” (the small cup costs 1 lv), is on sale everywhere, is frequent with juice. During a heat it is good also “арьян” – the refreshing drink from water and sour milk.
The population of Bulgaria (by assessment for 1997) makes 8,24 million people, In the largest cities: Sofia (1,14 million people), Plovdiv (379 thousand people), Varna (315 thousand people). According to a census of 1985, the population made 8,9 million people. Decrease in population is explained by mass emigration of Turks in the late eighties. Ethnic groups: Bulgarians – 85%, Turks – 9%, Armenians, Roma, Greeks, Macedonian Slavs.
The republic with parliamentary management. The head of state is the president, and permanent Supreme regulatory authority – unicameral People’s assembly.
Religion: the Bulgarian orthodox church – 85%, Islam – 12%, Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism.
In Bulgaria the long-distance bus movement is organized, but buses go with a small speed. It is possible to use network of the railroads, but delays are here too possible. The persons wishing to hire the car are obliged to have the international driving license. All Kurortny district to the North from Varna – small. From the most northern place – Albena – to Varna – 29 km. Distances between settlements: Varna – St. Konstantin – 10 km, Varna – Gold dust – 20 km, Albena – Gold dust – 10 km, Albena – Balchik – 10 km, Albena – Dobrich – 35 km, Varna – Sofia – 450 km, Varna – Burgas – 200 km. Lease of the car in Albena (offices of “Rent-a-Car” are in Dobrudja hotel and at the bus station) and costs €33 a day. Gasoline – 1.5 lv for liter. Roads in Bulgaria on quality, approximately same, as in Moscow area. From Albena (and back) it is the most convenient to reach Gold dust and Varna by bus. The trip from Albena to Varna takes ~ 30 min. and costs 2.5 Lv. The bus goes everyone half an hour, from 8:30 till 18:15. From Varna the city bus and to Gold dust goes (till 23:00). The cost of the ticket – 1 lv, time in way – 30-40 minutes. At night – only a taxi (about 0,5 lv for km). Entry into Albena paid, 1 Lv in an hour for passenger cars. In general, the parking expensive both in Varna, and in other places. The seasonal admission to Albena costs 350lv. From Albena the bus to Sofia, the ticket – 20 Lv goes. Time in way – 8 hours. Departure three times a day (to 22:000). Except the car, it is possible to hire the bicycle – 5 lv an hour.
If you travel on own car, you need to have at yourself the international driving license, documents on the car and the international ecological certificate (a green leaf). It is recommended to insure before departure the car. In Bulgaria rules of the international insurance work. At entry into the country you should pay usual road duty.
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