We will tell you interesting facts about Brazil in this article.
- Capital: Brasilia
- Language: Portuguese, also Spanish
- Population: 170 million persons.
- Religion: Catholicism
- Currency: real = 100 centavos
Brazil is known around the world as the country of soccer and a samba, the fantastic and beautiful city of Rio de Janeiro and the impassable jungle, and, of course, the most spectacular carnivals. It is fairly called the country of contrasts: magnificent rainforests adjoin to majestic mountains, the wild jungle with multimillion megalopolises, magnificent beaches and the huge rivers with desert plateaus, the roaring falls with cozy silent ocean bays. Each region – the special geographical and ethnic world. From natural sights the most known are the Copacabana, Ipanema and Le Blond beaches in Rio de Janeiro, the mountain “Sugar head”, the mountain Korkovado, National park of Fos-de-Iguazu, the Iguazu Falls.
The precolonial history of Brazil doesn’t know advanced civilizations, similar Aztec or Incan. Before arrival of Europeans Brazil was inhabited by Indian tribes of Arawaks and Caribs in the north, be in a stupor – guarani – on east coast and in the valley of Amazon, a panel – in the West. At the beginning of the 16th century the Portuguese conquistadors who have destroyed the most part of indigenous people and created large-scale plantatorsky enterprises with use of a slave labor of the Blacks imported from Africa have intruded here. As a result of liberation movement in 1822 the country has been proclaimed the independent empire (since 1889 – the federal republic).
About 169,5 million people (2000), the country takes the fifth place in the world on population. Brazil – one of the most motley countries of South America on ethnic structure, the nation created as a result of mixture of Portuguese and other European immigrants with Indian natives and with the Black slaves who are taken out from Africa. Ethnic structure: white – 54,7%, Blacks – 5,89%, mulattos – 38,45%. In the country more than 3 million immigrants (Japanese, Italians, Germans, Arabs, French, etc.). 97% of inhabitants call themselves Brazilians, and Indians – less than 1%. Now Brazil is considered the world leader in inequality in differentiation of the income of the population.
Official – Portuguese, Spanish is widespread, are also used French, German, Italian. In internal areas the lingua is everywhere used “zherat” – be in a stupor the common language which has evolved from languages of Indian tribes – guarani, and also 180 various languages and dialects of ethnic groups.
From equatorial in the northwest to subtropical in the southeast, average temperatures of January from 23 to 29 °C, July from 16 to 24 °C. Seasons are opposite to the Northern hemisphere. In Rio de Janeiro it is always damp, from November to March – very hot, the best time for visit – from May to August. At this time air temperature fluctuates from 18 to 22 °C here, and from the ocean the light warm breeze blows. In mountainous areas in the winter temperature can fall to 0 °C. The worst month – July, since cold and often it is drizzling. In Amazonia the dry season lasts since August prior to the beginning of December, from December to April – very hot, rare rains, from May to July – plentiful rains.
National currency real = 100 centavos. Money can be changed in banks and in exchange offices at travel agencies and shopping centers (the most favorable rate), in hotels (as a rule, only dollars), at the airports and at stations. The majority of the main international credit cards are accepted for payment in large hotels, restaurants and shopping centers of big cities. It is possible to cash traveler’s checks in hotels, banks, travel agencies and most large shops, but a course usually a little less favorable, than at exchange of cash. At restaurants the foreign currency and traveller’s checks are usually not accepted. ATMs accept for payment, generally the Visa and American Express cards.
Most of believers – Catholics. Many inhabitants of the African origin still profess various cults.
Bus traffic between the cities located along the coast is developed well. In big cities in buses and trolleybuses tickets are acquired from the conductor, a stop on demand. But the trip by public bus can be unsafe, there is a risk to be robed. A preferable type of transport in Rio and other cities – a taxi. Fare depends on type of a taxi, a make of the car, time of day, zones of service and etc. For turning on of the conditioner in the car the separate payment is raised. To hire the car, it is necessary to have the international rights and a credit card. Offices of the largest companies on rent of cars (Helts, Avis, National, etc.) are in the airports and the large cities. The cost of rent of cars very high – from 100 dollars a day. Besides, bolshinst of drivers of the traffic regulation treat peculiar, the geography of big cities happy difficult, is practically not present parking lots, penalties of police for violations very big.
Most restaurants offer a wide choice of dishes, both international kitchen, and the national Brazilian. The best-known dish – Feyzhoada, prepared from black haricot with smoked meat of the most various range. Meat in Brazil excellent and quite cheap, is in the greatest demand in FILET MIGNON. In the city also incalculable number of the restaurants called by CHURASCARIA. In them you can try different grades of the meat fried on skewers, choosing pieces to the taste, accompanying a meal with fine snack, in any quantity at the fixed price. The payment is brought on an entrance to a shurashkariya in advance and approximately makes 15-20 US dollars. You will meet also large number of instant snackbars of food at the low prices. The lunch with beer approximately costs 10 dollars. The Brazilian beer is considered one of the best in the world. The most popular BRAHMA, ANTARTICA and SKOL brands. GUARANA – useful fruit drink from Amazonia isn’t less pleasant. Brazilian wines, gins and rums very good and inexpensive.
To Brazil come behind jewelry (for serious buyers – shops of N. Stern and Amsterdam Sauer). The prices of other goods are strongly overstated. From souvenirs it is possible to get a bottle of a kaypirinya, hand-made article from mahogany, the Brazilian spices, Black amulets, Indian vessels.
if stay in Brazil provides visit of the following states: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goyas, Maranyau, to the Mat to Gross, the Mat to Gross du Cull, Couple, Rondônia, Roraima, and also the Federal district, is recommended vaccination against yellow fever. High risk of an infection of hepatitis B, especially at sexual contacts, blood transfusions, etc. Preliminary vaccination against hepatitis A and B, malaria is recommended.
Tap water can’t be drunk. With itself it is necessary to take drugs necessary for you and medical supplies, absorbent carbon and/or immodium medicines as from change of climate and unusual food the stomach can fail. We recommend to take with ourselves on the beach the sun-protection umbrellas offered in hotel and also it is obligatory to use sun-protection creams with coefficients of protection 15-30. In most large hotels there are doctors, the health insurance for receiving services is obligatory.
It is recommended not to wear an expensive jewelry, not to accept invitations from unfamiliar people and not to leave money, the photo and video equipment in the hotel room. In resort suburbs of Rio de Janeiro, in Manaus, Buzios at the Iguazu Falls safely. It isn’t necessary to go to Rio on the business center of the city after the termination of the working day. Leaving on the beach, leave valuable things (hours, money, jewelry and documents) in the safe of hotel. At desire you can take on the beach the camera or the video camera, but at full confidence that during your bathing they will be under supervision. In Rio very artful ocean wave is also not present shallow water therefore bathing is dostatotochno unsafe. With nightfall it is better not to linger on the beach as at this time there is no police. During beach rest it is desirable to leave the passport in the safe of hotel, but in the rest of the time it is better to have the passport at itself and to show upon the demand of officials, following laws of Brazil. The passport is also necessary at flight onboard national or international planes. Don’t lose your card of arrival which is given at customs at an arrival as she needs to be shown at departure from the country.
For stay in resorts the light cotton clothes are most acceptable. Beach dresses are rather democratic. For winter evenings it is quite good to have a light sweater. The evening dresses which are rather simplified. Near Amazonia and Pantanala the dense, closed clothes are obligatory.
Holidays and the days off
On January 1, a carnival (in February), Good Friday, Easter Monday, April 21, on May 1 and 25, on June 15, on September 7, on October 12, on November 2 and 15, on December 25.
Carnival in Brazil
This such event on which millions of people dream to get. Every year at the end of February, before the Lent, all Brazil captured by a continuous thunder of the drums which are beating off a rhythm of an incendiary samba plunges into the most noisy, bright and cheerful holiday, the most grandiose show on the planet. A carnival in Rio – the most organized of them. In 2004 he will pass on February 21 and 22 and 28 there will take place the Parade of champions.
Sources of the Brazilian carnival lie in ritual dancings of Black Africa which pulsing rhythms coinciding with blows of heart have been delivered to Brazil together with millions of black slaves and slaves. In the middle of the 20th century the first schools of a samba were formed. In 1916 the first samba especially for a carnival has been written. It was called “By phone”.
As scientists testify, in the word “carnival” two Latin roots – carno (meat) lie, and (forgive) to vale. This holiday since ancient times took place in 40 days prior to the Holy Week and was a peculiar boundary behind which the Lent began. However sources of a carnival lie in pagan ceremonies in honor of Ancient Egyptian god Osiris and in the Roman Saturnalia. When the paganism was succeeded by Christianity, the ban has been imposed on many traditions and holidays. Also the carnival has got under him. But there have passed centuries, there has come Renaissance, and the real holiday during which people forgot about everything has rushed into the gloomy atmosphere the intimidated inquisition of Europe a fresh breeze, ranks and the statuses were cancelled, a rigid framework of decencies was moved apart and orders changed. Later Europeans, having settled on the world, have brought a carnival practically on all continents of the planet, and locals with pleasure have adopted this tradition. Carnivals in Brazil, Goa, Basel and Nice – at each of these grandiose holidays are the color and the special atmosphere. Try to feel also you that such true fun …
The Brazilian carnival, one of the best-known shows of the world is an exotic mix of the European refinement, ancient Indian traditions and customs of black slaves. The Catholic church has found the place to so “secular” holiday in the calendar, and since then he is noted exactly in seven weeks before Easter, in forty days prior to the Holy Week. This year the Brazilian carnival will open on Saturday March 1, and will come to the end with “a parade of winners” on March 8. Many argue that has served as the beginning of carnival tradition. They say, the “Amusing day” brought by Portuguese – a holiday when it was accepted to fool each other in the various ways, to pour water, to obkidyvat crude eggs, corn and haricot is the cornerstone of him. Girls usually marked from balconies directly at the heads of the guys who were pleasant to them, besides the last not only didn’t take offense at it, but also perceived it as advances. The festival was always followed by songs and dancings. Soon the African slaves have joined a national Portuguese entertainment with pleasure, having introduced picturesque customs of the homeland there. The Italian immigrants, in turn, have brought a particle of fantastic Venetian carnivals to Brazil. So with centuries there was also the Brazilian carnival which now every year attracts millions of travelers to this country.
Carnival is the most important event of year for each Brazilian, it is a holiday which has concentrated in itself(himself) soul and mentality of this country. The carnival in Rio – beautiful, expensive and sexual performance on world public is most known to the world, but in remote places these days have fun too. National holidays take place far from the tourist centers – in Salvador, Recife and Fortaleza, besides instead of frivolous plots historical scenes are usually played here. But for any the carioca – the inhabitant of Rio – “provincial” holidays don’t cost also an attention shred, all main action happens here, in the main town of his Majesty Karnavala. Within four official days of a holiday (and informally the country celebrates more than a week) there comes here time when the city unconditionally gives itself to the power of fun when the look is obscured by passion when with ease are forgotten unfortunate “love” and there are new “passions”.
Traditionally the carnival begins with “an official part” – symbolical transfer of keys from the city the mayor to “the king of a carnival”. For four days he becomes the full owner of the city and is allocated with the right to publish and repeal any laws. However, the main law is known: all to have fun! And the population expresses full readiness to obey. The whole week nobody works. Crowds of half-dressed people jam-pack streets on which there doesn’t go any car. Erotic “tone” of participants of a carnival and the audience rises so that to avoid a population explosion, the authorities are forced to distribute several million condoms every year free of charge. And as differently, the type of safely naked dancers dancing in a mad rhythm makes just knocking out impression on the audience …
By the way about a rhythm. Initially the Portuguese national songs were music of a carnival. Then, following fashion of that time, they began to alternate with the Pole, the Italian carnival rhythms, and with 1870 also with new Brazilian style of music “maxixe”. Have soon appeared so-called – competitions of the dancers embodying difficult love peripetias in dancing pases. From as it is considered, the samba has taken the unique virtuosity. And here the movements have come from ritual African dancings, for example from the African ceremonial dance “semb” which externally resembled mad jolting by a stomach. By the way, initially the samba was a form of self-expression of the black population. In a consequence have great influenced primordial African dancings fashionable at that time the Pole and a habanera, dance began to change according to time commands, and soon became the main component of the Brazilian carnival.
In 1916 the first samba especially for this holiday has been written, and in 1928 also the first school of this dance has appeared. Now schools of a samba is the unique “institute” in Brazil representing certain amateur creative associations which exist on a subsidy and which main tasks – to be prepared for a carnival procession and to carry out it so that all got from delight. “Factories of a carnival” work all the year round, and the stunning carnival procession which is seen by the audience – it is a result of long efforts of several thousand people. The carnival procession of the most titled schools of a samba is devoted every year to some certain subject. According to her during the whole year the school sews suits, prepares scenery, decorates platforms, puts choreography, writes the samba, and all this becomes only in order that it is the best of all to pass 700 meters on Sambadrom. Participate in a performance of each school usually from three to five thousand people including the famous actors and athletes who know that it will surely add him popularity.
Since 1984 carnival processions go along the avenue, specially allotted for this purpose. It is constructed on Marquis Sapoucai’s avenida which length of 700 meters, and width of 13 meters. Stands of Sambadrom accomodate over 70 thousand people, and 40 thousand places are supplied with little tables and bars. The culmination of a carnival comes on Sunday and Monday when there pass schools of a samba of the first category. The carnival march “Opens action spread wings” which especially for a holiday has written in 1899 to Shkinya Gonzago. The procession of each of schools borrows an hour and a half, besides the most titled goes the first. At first there are best dancers, the staff of school and a celebrity in carnival costumes, them – thousands of dancers and hundreds of musicians among whom, having paid about 600 dollars, there can be anyone. And on vehicles, near allegorical figures, in a haze of feathers, the paste and spangles is danced by “destagues” – especially allocated actors. Near them “пассистас”, elite dancers almost without clothes ecstatic move. All of them play the own plots united by the general theme of this year which is announced in advance.
Fourteen dancing schools of “the highest league” act two nights. Besides their show has to win not only the hearts of the audience, but also a judiciary board which has to announce champions and losers of this year. The jury considers everything: music and lyrics, synchronism of movements, statement plot. Estimates usually decrease for “tears” in the ranks of dancers, an insufficient expression in dance or rather weak response of the audience. But “the separate song” of the Brazilian carnival is, certainly, clothes of dancers though it is in certain cases more expedient to speak about her absence. To be bared is the second secret law of a carnival in Rio de Janeiro. However full nakedness is forbidden by rules therefore infinite options of the juicy suits which are dementing not only unsophisticated tourists of foggy Europe, but also the local audience who has got used already to everything are offered the audience.
We hope to you article was pleasant. Thanks for attention.